Integration of a tissue patch into a chip gives rise to organ on-a-chip models. Typically, a tissue patch made two types of cells are inserted in the interface of two elastoplastic plates. After clamping, solutions are injected to create physiological conditions.
One examples is alveolus modeling. By differentiating hiPSCs into epithelial and endothelial cells on upper and lower side of a culture patch, an alveolar tissue is obtained and then integrated into a microfluidic devise to recapitulate the pulmonary physiological conditions. By injecting cell factors and/or nano-materials, it is possible to study the translocation effect at the alveolar epithelium level.
More generally, integration of several tissue patches of different cell types into a microfluidic system will allow creating a body-like circulatory or micro-physiological system to investigate the mutual influences of different tissues. For example, one can co-culture of human intestine, liver, skin and kidney cells with a medium circulation loop for drug testing.